AI can be divided into four categories, based on the type and complexity of the tasks a system is able to perform. They are:
A reactive machine follows the most basic of AI principles and, as its name implies, is capable of only using its intelligence to perceive and react to the world in front of it. A reactive machine cannot store a memory and, as a result, cannot rely on past experiences to inform decision making in real time.
Perceiving the world directly means that reactive machines are designed to complete only a limited number of specialized duties. Intentionally narrowing a reactive machine’s worldview has its benefits, however: This type of AI will be more trustworthy and reliable, and it will react the same way to the same stimuli every time.
Limited memory AI has the ability to store previous data and predictions when gathering information and weighing potential decisions — essentially looking into the past for clues on what may come next. Limited memory AI is more complex and presents greater possibilities than reactive machines.
Limited memory AI is created when a team continuously trains a model in how to analyze and utilize new data or an AI environment is built so models can be automatically trained and renewed.
When utilizing limited memory AI in ML, six steps must be followed:
Theory of mind is just that — theoretical. We have not yet achieved the technological and scientific capabilities necessary to reach this next level of AI.
The concept is based on the psychological premise of understanding that other living things have thoughts and emotions that affect the behavior of one’s self. In terms of AI machines, this would mean that AI could comprehend how humans, animals and other machines feel and make decisions through self-reflection and determination, and then utilize that information to make decisions of their own. Essentially, machines would have to be able to grasp and process the concept of “mind,” the fluctuations of emotions in decision-making and a litany of other psychological concepts in real time, creating a two-way relationship between people and AI.
Once theory of mind can be established, sometime well into the future of AI, the final step will be for AI to become self-aware. This kind of AI possesses human-level consciousness and understands its own existence in the world, as well as the presence and emotional state of others. It would be able to understand what others may need based on not just what they communicate to them but how they communicate it.
Self-awareness in AI relies both on human researchers understanding the premise of consciousness and then learning how to replicate that so it can be built into machines.
Artificial intelligence technology takes many forms, from chatbots to navigation apps and wearable fitness trackers. The below examples illustrate the breadth of potential AI applications.
ChatGPT is an artificial intelligence chatbot capable of producing written content in a range of formats, from essays to code and answers to simple questions. Launched in November 2022 by OpenAI, ChatGPT is powered by a large language model that allows it to closely emulate human writing.
Google Maps uses location data from smartphones, as well as user-reported data on things like construction and car accidents, to monitor the ebb and flow of traffic and assess what the fastest route will be.
Personal assistants like Siri, Alexa and Cortana use natural language processing, or NLP, to receive instructions from users to set reminders, search for online information and control the lights in people’s homes. In many cases, these assistants are designed to learn a user’s preferences and improve their experience over time with better suggestions and more tailored responses.
Snapchat filters use ML algorithms to distinguish between an image’s subject and the background, track facial movements and adjust the image on the screen based on what the user is doing.
Self-driving cars are a recognizable example of deep learning, since they use deep neural networks to detect objects around them, determine their distance from other cars, identify traffic signals and much more.
The wearable sensors and devices used in the healthcare industry also apply deep learning to assess the health condition of the patient, including their blood sugar levels, blood pressure and heart rate. They can also derive patterns from a patient’s prior medical data and use that to anticipate any future health conditions.
MuZero, a computer program created by DeepMind, is a promising frontrunner in the quest to achieve true artificial general intelligence. It has managed to master games it has not even been taught to play, including chess and an entire suite of Atari games, through brute force, playing games millions of times.